Mt. Vernon Register-News

Community News Network

June 5, 2014

This is why it's so hard to define unemployment

WASHINGTON — What does it mean to be unemployed? Depends on what country you're in.

On Friday, the U.S. Labor Department is slated to release its monthly snapshot of the health of the labor market. Calculating the number of people who are unemployed seems like a pretty straightforward task. But the years since the Great Recession have highlighted the complexities of one of the country's the most critical economic indicators.

There is universal agreement that unemployed people meet two basic requirements: They don't have a job, and they want a job. Those characteristics separate the unemployed from, say, your 90-year-old grandmother who is retired and has no interest in working

It is the third requirement that gets messy: Unemployed people must also be looking for work. But what counts as "looking for work"? Applying for a job? Scanning a job board? Updating your resume? Signing up for LinkedIn?

The difficulty in settling on a single definition becomes clear when comparing the United States to our neighbors in the north. The official definition of unemployment in America requires "actively" looking for a job in the past month. That includes contacting an employer directly, visiting a job placement center and sending out your resume. It specifically does not include so-called "passive" actions such as scanning a newspaper jobs section.

The opposite is true in Canada. The country's official statistical agency lists "looked at job ads" as one of the acceptable methods of searching for employment. Statistics Canada said that if the country's unemployment rate were adjusted to match the U.S. measurements, it would fall from 6.9 percent to 5.9 percent.

"Most industrialized countries, including Canada and the United States, subscribe to guidelines established by the International Labour Office for defining and measuring labour market status, including unemployment. However, the guidelines are, by design, rather imprecise, so that individual countries can interpret them within the context of their own labour markets," the agency explains on its website.

In fact, until last year, the ILO was pretty lax in requiring countries - particularly in the developing world, where labor markets are still heavily informal - to incorporate "looking for work" into their definitions of unemployment. For example, South Africa used to publish two unemployment rates: an expanded rate of people who were simply out of a job and wanted to work and a strict rate of people who also had actually looked for a job or tried to start their own business. The differences could be stark: In 1999, the expanded unemployment rate was 36.2 percent, but the strict rate was 23.3 percent.

"It's messy enough in the high-income world where we have markets and statistics and surveys, but when you start going into the developing world, it becomes much more difficult," said Andrew Burns, lead economist of the Development Prospects Group at the World Bank. "The definitions all fall apart."

The ILO facilitates decisions by the International Conferences of Labour Statisticians. The group has tried to accommodate the world's evolving labor force by refining its wording. Countries are now required to include job search within their definitions of unemployment. Those who are out of a job and want a job but are not looking are considered part of the "potential workforce." The ILO also now distinguishes between people who are employed and people who are working more broadly, for example, in subsistence agriculture.

Statistics are not just numbers. They are an attempt to categorize and quantify the infinite variations in human behavior. No wonder the data always feels incomplete.

"We're looking at this thing that we think we know what it is using different lenses," Burns said. "Depending on the lenses that you're using, you'll get a slightly different picture. There's no right and no wrong answer."

 

1
Text Only
Community News Network
  • Africa goes medieval in its fight against Ebola

    As the Ebola epidemic claims new victims at an ever-increasing rate, African governments in Sierra Leone, Guinea and Liberia have instituted a "cordon sanitaire," deploying troops to forcibly isolate the inhabitants in an area containing most of the cases.

    August 18, 2014

  • Democrat? Republican? There's an app for that

    If you're a Republican, you might want to think twice before buying Lipton Iced Tea, and forget about Starbucks coffee. If you're a Democrat, put down that Reese's Peanut Butter Cup, and throw away the cylinder of Quaker Oats in your pantry.

    August 18, 2014

  • Five myths about presidential vacations

    In the nuclear age, presidents may have only minutes to make a decision that could affect the entire world. They don't so much leave the White House as they take a miniature version of it with them wherever they go.

    August 15, 2014

  • weightloss.jpg The scales of injustice: Weight loss differs between men, women

    You're not imagining it: There really are differences between the way men and women diet, lose weight and respond to exercise.

    August 13, 2014 1 Photo

  • Drug dealers going corporate

    A top federal official on Tuesday said that 105 banks and credit unions are doing business with legal marijuana sellers, suggesting that federal rules giving financial institutions the go-ahead to provide services to dealers are starting to work.

    August 13, 2014

  • wwimemorial.jpg The benefit of World War I omission on the Washington Mall

    By 1982, when the Vietnam Veterans Memorial opened on the National Mall, something had shifted in the way we remember our wars. A national memorial, prominently placed on the nation's most symbolically significant public space, came to seem like an essential dignity offered to veterans, their families and the memory of those who gave their lives. But there is an exception.

    August 11, 2014 1 Photo

  • In Japan, ramen aficionados worry their favorite dish is coming off the boil

    "The ramen boom has ended," said Ivan Orkin, a New Yorker who first traveled to Japan in the 1980s and now owns two noodle-soup restaurants in Tokyo. "A boom implies that there are new avenues and new growth to pursue, and that's not the case in Japan anymore."

    August 11, 2014

  • Ronnie Ellis: U.S. Senate race trail long and interesting

    By Ronnie Ellis/CNHI News Service

    FRANKFORT — Last week was a long one, endured under the onslaught of an awful summer cold and played out across the commonwealth. It began in Fancy Farm and ended it in Corbin with a trip to Hazard in between.

    August 9, 2014

  • Senate race becomes family affair

    By LANA BELLAMY
    CNHI NEWS SERVICE
    PAINTSVILLE — U.S. Senate Minority Leader Mitch McConnell got personal on Friday while calling a report inaccurate concerning his wife’s role as a board member in an organization that funds anti-coal efforts.

    August 9, 2014

  • Dennis Beighley led out of courthouse Mother, grandparents face attempted murder charges in starvation case

    Cheers and applause erupted in a courtroom when a pregnant mother from Pennsylvania accused of starving her then-7-year-old son was remanded to jail, along with the boy’s grandparents.

    August 8, 2014 2 Photos

Twitter Updates
Facebook
Stocks